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Analytical and Policy Needs (APN)


APN Technical Session 1: Environmental Issues

Session organized by Eszter Horvath, UNSD ( and Johan Selenius, EUROSTAT (

This session will focus on statistical and institutional dimensions for integrated agri-environmental statistics following the presentations in the APN plenary session. Moreover, the presentations will reflects on the various stages of statistical development in developed and developing countries. It will cover basic agricultural and environment statistics that feed into the analysis of agriculture-environment relationships and related frameworks through the compilation of agri-environmental indicators. This integrated analysis is to be facilitated with the application of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounts (SEEA), the accounting framework for linking agri-economic activity and other human activity with the environment.

Agricultural Statistics Relevant to the Environment

Work related to improving the usefulness of "traditional" agricultural statistics for environmental analyses

Environment statistics related to agriculture

Work related to statistics on various topics, such as land use and –cover, water use, energy use, air emissions, wastewater and waste, nutrient balances, biodiversity, natural disasters and extreme events.

Sustainable Production and Consumption

Work related to farm management practices, farming systems, organic and integrated production, etc.

Agri-environmental indicators

Work related to indicators by various themes farm management, nutrient use, pesticide use, water use, soil quality, water quality, land cover, use and conservation, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, landscape, wildlife habitats.

Accounting Framework (development of System of Environmental Economic Accounts for Agriculture and Rural Development (SEEA Agri, update of SEEA Forestry and update of SEEA Fisheries)

Work related to the development and proposed update of integrated presentations of input-output tables and asset and functional accounts in the SEEA related to agriculture, forestry and fisheries to further the coherence of agri-environmental statistics and indicators using common concepts definitions and classifications.


APN Technical Session 2: Understanding the Nexus Gender-Agriculture through Better Data

Session organized by Talip Kilic, The World Bank (

As stated in the World Bank’s World Development Report Gender Equality and Development, “While a great deal has been learned about what works and what does not when it comes to promoting greater gender equality, the truth remains that progress is often held back by the lack of data ...” (World Bank, 2012).  As a consequence of these data shortcomings, it is not uncommon to find unsubstantiated claims in the literature about the importance of women in the economy.  This is particularly true in agriculture, where our understanding of women’s role in the sector and the constraints they face in production vis a vis men remains rather limited. 

The aim of this session is to present recent theoretical and empirical contributions to the field of gender analysis in an attempt to shed lights on the nexus between gender and agriculture.  Papers documenting methodological innovation in the collection of gender-disaggregated data are welcome, together with empirical research highlighting the analytical advantages of collecting gender-disaggregated data, with a particular focus on agriculture.


APN Technical Session 3: Measuring Welfare in Developing Countries in Practice: Beyond Income and Besides Consumption

Session organized by Luc Christiaensen, The World Bank (

The Global Strategy for Improving Agricultural and Rural Statistics identifies as one of its priorities the need for improving the measurement of well-being beyond income.  While collecting income data has its analytical advantages, concerns are often raised about its feasibility and suitability under conditions of high informality of the labor market.  In fact, as also recognized in the Wye City Group Handbook “Statistics on Rural Development and Agricultural Household Income”, measuring consumption to gauge living standards and poverty, instead of income, may be preferable, especially in developing countries. 

Measuring welfare through consumption, however, is not without problems either.  Moreover, the complexity of collecting full consumption data often makes it incompatible with many survey undertakings.  In many project contexts and in small-survey settings, collecting full consumption data is simply not an option: thus, the need for validating alternative, cost-effective methods for the measurement of welfare.  Furthermore, the low frequency in the availability of consumption data makes it imperative for development practitioners to device better methods to monitor welfare overtime. 

Asset-based indexes and consumption prediction models are sometimes being used to proxy for full consumption expenditures.  However, they remain poorly validated, casting doubt about their credibility and external validity.

This session will assemble the most recent and technically sound theoretical and empirical studies in the measurement of welfare through proxies, in lieu of direct measures of consumption expenditure. Different techniques to select welfare proxies and derive weights to combine them into one index (either anchored in consumption or not) will be explored and their performance in predicting consumption across different segments of the distribution will be examined in different settings. 

The session will include three 20-minute presentations of relevant studies by leading experts in the field, followed by a 30-minute round table discussion.


APN Technical Session 4: The Challenges of Measuring Labor and Employment in Developing Economies

Session organized by Katheen Beegle, The World Bank (

Improving employment outcomes to improve well-being and raise incomes are at the national and global policy discussions. Yet, measuring employment in developing countries faces a number of challenges. Statistics on employment are largely drawn from household surveys, but the quality and content of these surveys varies widely.  Within country, definitions across surveys (designed for different objectives) may also vary. Moreover, international definitions (ILO and others) of labor force status, unemployment, and main job may not be applicable to countries characterized by low income, high seasonality, and informal work. Labor income in household surveys is often only partially measured, particularly in agriculture where unit value of labor is often not available for a lack of measures of the aggregate supply of household labor. Job creation measures from enterprise surveys often miss microenterprises, which can dominate in many of the poorest countries, thereby distorting the picture of where job creation lies. And, the lack of annual labor force data in many countries necessitates estimates derived from models/estimates.

The objective of this session is to discuss these challenges and discuss new innovations and methodologies for employment measurement. Preference will be given to papers with some focus on agricultural jobs and rural employment issues.

This technical session will consist of three 15-minute paper presentations, followed by 45-minute panel discussion from leading experts, complemented by interventions from the floor.


APN Technical Session 5: Measuring Contract Farming

Session organized by James MacDonald, USDA/ERS (

Contract farming is an important and growing phenomenon. The term refers to pre-harvest arrangements between farmers and buyers that specify quality attributes, outlets, and delivery windows for products and compensation formulas for farmers. Contract farming provides challenges for existing statistical systems. Commodity price data may not be observed if farmers are paid for the services that they provide rather than for products. Even when farmers are paid for products, meaningful price data must also convey information on product attributes. Contractor-provided inputs may not be tracked in statistical systems.

Papers should address the methodological challenges posed for statistical systems by contract farming. What statistics need to be collected on contract farming, and with what frequency? Does contract farming change the universe of entities that ought to be surveyed, and how should statisticians respond to that challenge? Do contract systems change the timing between production and payments, and do statistical systems need to take account of that change? How should samples be designed? Can data systems rely on random samples of contract producers, or must they also cover contractors? Does contract farming alter the methods by which we should collect production and price information? How should we measure the economic performance of contract farming systems, and what do we know about their relative performance?


APN Technical Session 6: Agricultural Prices and Markets

Session organized by Jacques Delincé, EC-Joint Research Centre (

Agricultural prices and market orientations are essential indicators for agricultural policies assessment and food security outlooks. Where available (i.e. FAO, IGC, IFPRI or GTAP databases), the end users has to question their cost of collection, their reliability, their timeliness and their adequacy to the policy  needs. This “prices and Markets” session will address the data collection costs, the modeler's needs, the prices transmission and volatility.

Possible topics for papers include:  food price statistics; prices transmission: ranking drivers as CBOT, energy, biofuels; modeling international trade in agriculture: the data needs; measuring and monitoring agri-food price level and volatility: the G20 Amis approach


APN Technical Session 7: Food Security

Session Organized by Cheryl Christensen, USDA/ERS (

Food security is a growing global concern, reflected in new international institutional arrangements, increased investment in food security at the national level, and a growing awareness of the interconnections with nutrition and sustainability.  The challenges involved in developing statistical and information systems to support these efforts are of increasing salience to a wide audience—as evidenced by the development of the Global Strategy, significant investments in metrics on the part of USAID and other donors, innovation data collection and analysis programs in the World Bank, programs and conferences in FAO and data initiatives private voluntary organizations such as WFP.  In addition, new national programs developed to improve food security based on cash transfers create new data challenges for developing countries.  This session seeks to bring together a range of practitioners working on food security from a range of perspectives to assess the “state of the art” in their community of practice and facilitate discussion of ways to improve the development, sharing and analysis of high quality food security information.   Topics to be explored could include innovations in the use of household level information measure food security and support food security programs and evaluation; contributions of national agricultural statistical systems to food security, data and information bases for food security monitoring systems, and evaluations of key differences across methods and levels of food security analysis.


Institutional Development and Capacity Building (IDCB)


IDCB Technical Session 1: Indicators on Country Capacity to Produce Agriculture Statistics

Session organized by Mukesh Srivastava, FAO ( and Mark R Miller USDA/NASS (

It is recognized that the capacity to produce agriculture statistics has declined over a period of time in many developing countries, while the demand of reliable statistics in increasing both at national and international level. Realizing the need for a global effort to build the national capacity, the Global Strategy to Improve Agriculture and Rural Statistics has been launched. The very first step of the Strategy is get a panoramic view of existing country capacity to produce agricultural statistics to serve as benchmark for monitoring the progress.

The capacity is intrinsic to a system and does not lend itself to direct measurement. Efforts have been made in recent past to measure capacity indirectly through the performance of the statistical system, often ignoring the quality of the results or their long-term impacts on capacity building.  Nonetheless, it is well understood that an expression of capacity needs an enabling environment, and that capacity building should address not only individuals but also the organizations in the system and the environment in which they operate.  

FAO and its partner institutions have developed a framework and a standard tool which has a sound conceptual basis and can be applied uniformly across all countries, of course, with some regional adaptations. The tool comprises collection of data on a standard self-reporting questionnaire and calculation of indicators based on the data. The indicators on different dimensions and elements present a profile of country capacity to produce agriculture statistics.  Under the Action Plan of the Global Strategy this exercise is referred as Initial Country Assessment. The session will focus on conceptual basis of the proposed Country Assessment framework and the experience of its application in different regions.


IDCB Technical Session 2: Enhancing the Credibility of Survey Data through Better Quality Data: Old Tricks and New Techniques in Data Quality Control

Organized by Barbara Rater, USDA/NASS ( and Gero Carletto, World Bank (

Survey data, in general, and agricultural statistics in particular, notoriously suffer from poor quality and low credibility.  While quantifying sampling errors in surveys is rather straightforward and based on sound statistical rules, poor data quality is more often the consequence of non-sampling errors for which proper quantification is much more complex, if ever possible.  Non-sampling errors may derive from a number of sources including poor wording or inadequate understanding of the survey instruments, intentional or unintended misreporting by respondents, undocumented inclusion or exclusion of sampling units, poor capacity and weak data processing systems.  Putting in place strict data quality control protocols, including proper training of interviewers, clear definition of roles in field operations, a sound outreach campaign to enhance the legitimacy of the survey purpose and appropriate data management systems, including systems of concurrent data entry and computer-assisted interviewing, can help mitigate some of the negative consequences of non-sampling errors and enhance the credibility of the information being collected.  Recent advances in technology, and the rapidly decreasing costs, can also help strengthen data quality control in survey operations; experience to date clearly demonstrates the great potential of these innovations in supporting and monitoring field operations.   

This session will present practical approaches to improving survey data quality, including techniques for training data interviewers, smart data entry systems, and real-time monitoring protocols.  It will also provide examples of how technological advances can be used to facilitate the job of survey data producers and enhance the experience of data users.


IDCB Technical Session 3: Carrying out in-depth assessment of agricultural statistics systems for building strategies for improvement

Session organized by Mukesh Srivastava, FAO ( and Mark R Miller USDA/NASS (

Increasing international demand and declining availability of agriculture statistics present a challenge for many developing countries. It is recognized that in many developing countries the capacity to produce agriculture statistics has declined over a period of time, and that there is a need for global effort to build the national capacity to produce agriculture statistics. The Global Strategy to Improve Agriculture and Rural Statistics aims to build national capacities through Research, Technical Assistance and Training.

The Country Assessment of Agricultural Statistics System questionnaire provides the starting point for understanding the current level of a country’s ability to produce timely and relevant agricultural statistics.  From this self analysis starting point, missing or incomplete analysis items can be provided by stake holders within the country and international development partners with the additional view of moving towards the development of an agricultural statistics improvement plan. 

This next step in the improvement of agricultural statistics in referred to as an in-depth assessment.  As such it provides the pivot point for moving from analysis to plan of action.  It brings together the agencies charged with producing agricultural statistics within the country, the internal data users, domestic funding sources with the international donor organizations and development partners. The efforts of these entities, utilizing the knowledge of the existing agricultural statistics, will identify the interventions necessary to implement the Global Strategy to Improve Agriculture and Rural Statistics.


(The original IDCB 3 session on dissemination has merged with SPP 6.)


IDCB Technical Session 4: Administrative Data

Session organized by Jeffrey Smith, STATCAN ( and Marcel Ernens, EUROSTAT (

Three issues facing statistical agencies are becoming increasingly important: the reaction from respondents and others concerning statistical reporting burden resulting from survey activities; the cost of operating survey programs in the face of budgetary pressures; and the ever-growing demand for relevant, timely and detailed agriculture data on which to base important policy and operating decisions. Perhaps in no other statistical domain are these interconnected issues more acutely felt than in agriculture statistics programs. As agricultural statisticians strive to impose less burden on busy agricultural producers, keep costs in check or reduce them, and still meet government, industry and other data needs, they are exploring and implementing innovative ways to maximize data already “in the system” for the production of high-quality statistics. This session will examine uses of administrative data in the production of agricultural statistics.


IDCB Technical Session 5: Agriculture Structure:  Development of a Harmonized Farm Typology for Policy Analysis

Session organized by Mary Ahearn, USDA/ERS (

Farm survey and census data contribute to a multitude of end uses. One type of use is for guiding policy decisions.  Those decisions are often focused on distributional issues, e.g., how proposed policies might affect economic performance for certain subpopulations, as well as the aggregate population.  Responses to policies will vary by farm and farm household characteristics and the subpopulation of focus will vary depending on the issue.  Moreover, when considering agriculture in an international context, consistency in a framework, or typology, is essential for developing an accurate comparative analysis. 

One of the most common typologies refers to the size of the farm business, for example, ranges of total area or sales. Another approach in some countries concerns the distinction between subsistence and commercial farming.  As the organizational characteristics of farms evolve to more complex business forms and a more integrated international marketplace, typologies will likely evolve. In practical terms, different statistical institutes employ different typologies in disseminating agriculture results, usually combining different criteria.  Worldwide small family farms dominate the landscape and account for a large share of the farm population.  At the same time, however, agricultural production is increasingly concentrated on a small share of farms. 

The ICAS is the ideal venue to address these challenges and move forward with solutions for the 21st Century. This session will consider alternative typologies that allow international comparisons of important issues in agriculture.  Questions to be addressed could include:  How should agricultural country-specific data be organized and presented so as to provide domestic users distributional information about the well-being of the people engaged in agriculture as well as the agricultural productive capacity of a country? What are solutions for harmonizing typologies across countries?  What is the most appropriate definition of a farm?  What is the most efficient approach for collecting economic information so as to minimize respondent burden and the public cost of data collection in an increasingly complex structure of agriculture? 


IDCB Technical Session 6: Reconciling Data and Integrating Systems

Session organized by Jacques Delincé, EC-Joint Research Centre (

Agricultural statistics are part of the wider national statistical plan what should ensure full coherence among the different sectors of the economy in term of the national accounts system.  Reconciling the various datasets and integrating the different sectors imply working rules covering the time and space aspects, integrating the whole agri-food chain components and linking the agriculture sector to the rest of the economy.

Possible topics for papers include:   coherence in agriculture statistics: role of the national strategy for the development of statistics; forward and backward linkages in Agriculture; Agricultural Social Accounting matrices; integrating international statistical databases for agricultural modeling.


IDCB Technical Session 7: Estimates, forecasts, expert opinions and assessment - their role in the official statistics on agriculture

Session organized by Flavio Bolliger, IBGE (

In the practical production of agricultural statistics, it is very common to use estimation methods different from those recommended in manuals. Many of them are traditional and consolidated: estimates/forecasts, special study, expert opinion, assessment, windscreen survey, expert meeting, board decision, subjective evaluation, etc.  The first four methods, for example, are listed as some of the alternatives in the Standard Questionnaire for Reference, Country Assessment of the Agricultural Statistics System for the Implementation of the Global Strategy to Improve Agricultural and Rural Statistics. Considering additional data sources, the Global Strategy (2011) states that “Expert judgment and windshield surveys can be used to collect data from experts whose judgments inform evaluations of agricultural conditions.” In many countries, this is the method used to obtain data on quantity and values that will be part of the official statistics. Moreover, according to Galmés (2011), “around one half of the 19 Latin American countries rely on subjective (non-probabilistic) methods of estimation.”

In general, those methods have precise definitions and relatively comprehensive descriptions. However, they are not included or fully discussed in the methodological recommendations for agricultural statistics.

The objectives of this session are: (1) report and evaluate the extent to which those alternative or traditional methods can be used; (2) discuss the purpose and the circumstances of their use; (3) discuss the need and the way to surpass them when they are, in fact, not recommended; (4) discuss the need and convenience to include those methods in international recommendations. 


Statistical Production Process (SPP)


SPP Technical Session 1: Master Frames for Agricultural and Rural Statistics

Session organized by Elisabetta Carfagna, FAO, University of Bologna (

A master sampling frame is a sampling frame that provides the basis for all data collections through sample surveys and censuses in a certain sector, allowing to select samples for several different surveys or different rounds of the same survey, as opposed to building an ad-hoc sampling frame for each survey.

The aims of the development of a master sampling frame are: avoiding duplication of efforts, reducing statistics discrepancies, connecting various aspects of the sector, allowing the analysis of the sampling units from the different viewpoints, and having a better understanding of the sector.

By definition, a sampling frame, must cover the entire survey population exhaustively and without overlaps. According to the type of information available in a country, different kinds of frames can be used for selecting sample units for sample surveys covering the various relevant aspects of agricultural statistics.

The ways in which the concept of master sampling frame can be applied in the different kinds of countries will be discussed, ranging from the use of population and/or agricultural census to area frame, with a focus on problems linked to the implementation of master sampling frames.


SPP Technical Session 2: Survey Design and Sampling Strategies for Agricultural Surveys

Session organized by Renee Picanso, USDA/NASS ( and Zelia Bianchini, IBGE (

As a way to ensure consistency in agricultural statistics, the Global Strategy (GS) advocates the use of a single frame of reference, a master sample frame and the establishment of an integrated system of surveys.

The GS admits some alternatives to master frame - list register (from population or agriculture census); area register (from images classified according to use, from agriculture census enumeration areas, or making use of grids or points). It discusses alternatives with direct sampling or different stages.

On the other hand, it defines a set of key indicators, and provides guidance on attendance requirements and geographical detail. It also proposes criteria and methods to discuss the relative importance of different agricultural activities, aimed at setting the national statistical program.

More appropriate solutions for survey methods, sampling design and strategy will depend crucially on the availability of information and particular characteristics of agriculture and other country-specific circumstances.

This session is intended to highlight new survey methodology and improved sampling and strategies for successful agricultural surveys and censuses. Topics include: 1) Integrated survey methods and sampling (including integrating agriculture and household surveys); 2) Conducting follow-on surveys from an agricultural census; 3) Reporting on successful research and/or experience in survey design and sampling areas.


SPP Technical Session 3: New Technologies for Data Collection for Agricultural Surveys and Statistics

Session organized by Mark Harris, USDA/NASS (

New technologies for Agricultural Surveys and Statistics: This session will focus on technology utilization in data collection, frames development, and other survey process. This includes:

  •  Thin client data collection utilizing cellular technology and devices;
  • Frames development utilizing new methodology or technology and new technology utilized in the collection of data from these frames; and
  • All other unique technology assisting in efficiency of survey and data collection processes.
  • Utilization of remote sensing technology should be limited to assisting in frame development or data collection or other uses in traditional agricultural surveys and census.


SPP Technical Session 4: Crop and Yield Forecasting

Session organized by Naman Keita, FAO (, Nancy Chin, FAO ( and Javier Gallego, EC/JRC (

Reliable data on expected food crop production is recognized as key factor for addressing effectively the growing food market volatility and its consequence on food security situation of populations, particularly in developing countries. This Session will discuss the extent to which, advances in Remote Sensing and use of geo-referencing and digital tools provide new opportunities for improved methodologies for producing timely and more accurate food crop production forecast. The focus of this session is on methodologies for accurate and cost-effective methods for improving forecasts of crop and yield, which remain a challenge in many developing countries. Of particular interest are submissions on methods and tools used for food crop production and yield forecast, in developing country context, particularly in presence of mixed crops, repeated cropping, and continuous cropping and for root crops. The emphasis will be on cost efficient data collection methods, based on new technologies such as remotely sensed data, GIS, digital technology.

Possible Topics for invited papers:

  1. Overview of successful Crop Forecasting methods and their potential for developing countries
  2. Recent advances in the use of Remote Sensing and implication for crop forecasting particularly in developing countries
  3. Yield and production forecast in the context of mixed crops, repeated cropping, and continuous cropping and for root crops.


SPP Technical Session 5: New Developments in Livestock and Fishery Statistics

Session organized by Alberto Zezza, World Bank ( and Flavio Bolliger, IBGE (

While a large number of developing countries exhibit serious weaknesses in statistics pertaining to the crop sector, the deficiencies in terms of nationally-representative data on the livestock and fishery sectors are even more acute. Indeed, only recently – with growing consumption of high-value foods in the developing world – there is increased attention towards the potential contribution of these sectors to economic growth and poverty reduction.

The proposed session aims to be a platform for discussing recent advances in approaches and methods for improving the availability and quality of livestock and fishery statistics, with a particular focus on developing countries. Quantifying and valuing the net contribution to household livelihoods and the role of livestock and fisheries in the economy requires the availability of reliable and complete data as well as sound analytical methodologies. Both livestock keepers and fisher-folks are often not well represented in national sample surveys, either for structural difficulty in sampling and surveying mobile and/or geographically remote households or for outright neglect at design stage, or lack of a specific definition.

The session will feature papers and presentations reporting on the development and application of new data collection methods on livestock and fisheries, with the aim to identify best practices and ideas that can be further validated or are ready to be scaled up in national data collection processes. The contributions in this session will contribute to starting a debate on livestock and fishery statistics in the context of the implementation of the Global Strategy.


SPP Technical Session 6: Census and Dissemination

Session organized by Mauricio Rebolledo Loaiza, INEGI ( and Susana Perez Cadena, INEGI (

In many countries, the economic and agricultural censuses are carried out through a comprehensive enumeration of the observation units, with which directories are conformed, being the basis for the subsequent collection of census data.

Generally, the enumeration activities for the Economic Census and for the Agricultural Census are done separately and independently, meaning that in many occasions the same areas are roamed by different interviewers and at different times, but with the same objective: capture observation units that perform economic or agricultural activities. The above cause high costs, over burden on respondents and frames built at different times are obtained.

The objective of the session is to understand the efforts that countries are making to build a unique directory with observation units dedicated to the economic and agricultural activities under the same enumerating operation, as well as its link with the Population Census.

Possible topics for papers in this session include:

  1. Comprehensive enumeration of the agricultural and forestry production units, as well as those dedicated to the production of goods, trading of goods and service providers in the country.
  2. Construction of a Master Sampling Frame for economic and agricultural units.
  3. Link between the Population, Agricultural and Economic Censuses.


In a more globalized and interconnected world, it is of vital importance to share information that allows knowing and disseminating information related to the agricultural statistics generating process, since this will enables all countries to go on a same direction, taking advantage of the experiences jointly acquired in the seek for a common objective: produce complete and accurate agricultural statistics with the maximum level of geographical and sectorial disaggregation possible, using the lowest quantity of resources.

To achieve the above, it is necessary to advance in the promotion of the “Free access to data” philosophy, understood as a practice that requires that certain data be available for everyone without copyright restrictions, patent nor other control mechanisms, following the principles of confidentiality that each institution and country are required to respect according to the legal frameworks.

The information that is apt for dissemination embraces all the agricultural statistics production process, from the birth of projects to the dissemination of the results, so that the experiences acquired through various activities of the process may be shared.

It is clear, that to obtain the above, considerable effort and time is required. To date, there are different advances that have been made in that sense, so the proposed approach for the Sixth International Conference on Agricultural Statistics circumscribes the following topics:

Dissemination of methodologies, good practices, a minimum set of core data, indicators and advanced technology for the agricultural statistics production process.

Design and use of products that combine statistics, geography and informatics for the dissemination of the agricultural statistics results.

Dissemination of projects that integrate economics, agricultural and population information in a unique geographic consultation product.

Work schemes that allow fully satisfying our information users, following the principles of confidentiality. User´s demand for data confidentiality is growing every day, our interest, is to know the way in which different countries are fulfilling these demands without violating the confidentiality principles that they are required to follow.

(Dissemination, which was originally IDCB 3, has now merged with Census Integration.)

SPP Technical Session 7: Remote Sensing Technology

Session organized by Jeff Bailey USDA/NASS (

This session will focus on using remote sensing technologies and geospatial information to monitor agricultural crop production. Remote sensing usage continues to expand and is becoming an integral part of statistical organizations.

Possible topics for papers in this session include:

  • Applications that create crop specific landcover classifications and statistics,
  • Development of operational crop area and yield estimates,
  • Development of the science and statistical applications to monitor and assess specific crop conditions and phenology,
  • Development of applications to monitor and assess soil moisture, drought, flooding and other natural disasters in timely, operational and user-friendly systems environments,
  • Applications using remote sensing for area frame development,
  • Geospatial Information Systems to measure land area and locate operations.


© 2012 IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística